Starting with the very decision of discontinuing Gnome 2 and writing Gnome 3 from scratch, the Gnome developers have had a strange way of innovating. The early versions of Gnome 3 were barely customizable, with a lot of features that had matured and stabilized in previous versions being completely gone. Since that moment on, the developers have continued in the same manner, by radically changing or completely removing features, without any way of reverting to the old behaviour. They started making choices for their users, instead of letting the users choose by themselves. And they have been constantly insisting on this policy.
Luckily, users still have the choice of completely switching to a different desktop environment. Just like I did. As I had been using Gnome for a long time (and considered Gnome 2 a mature and robust desktop environment), the natural choice for me was MATE Desktop Environment, which I have been consistently using ever since.
However, the GTK3 library suffers from the same obtuse policy of limiting users' freedom, and recently many important desktop applications (such as Firefox and LibreOffice) have switched to GTK3. For users like me who don't want their desktop to start behaving differently over the night, perhaps one of the most annoying things in recent GTK3 versions is the default behaviour of the file chooser. This article mentions some popular GTK3 problems and the solutions to fix them.
Overlay Scroll Bars
By default, scrollbars are now hidden and appear on-demand, when you hover the mouse over the scrollable area edge. The problem is that they are rendered over the scrollable area content, hiding some of it. If you prefer traditional scroll-bars, you can switch back to the old behaviour by adding this to your
Show Directories First in File Chooser
By default, the GTK3 file chooser mixes directories and files in the list. If you're looking for a particular directory in the list, this makes it harder to find it. This can be easily changed by a configuration option:
gsettings set org.gtk.Settings.FileChooser sort-directories-first true
If you prefer a GUI, there's
dconf-editor, which allows you to browse to /org/gtk/Settings/FileChooser, see a list of available settings and their allowed values and change them as you like.
File Chooser Typeahead Search
In previous GTK versions, you used to be able to focus on any file/directory in the list, start typing, and this would jump to the matching file/directory in the already loaded list. In newer GTK3 versions this is no longer possible. Starting to type switches the list to recursive search results matching what you typed. If you have a large directory structure, this is not only very slow and resource consuming, but also completely useless - because you end up with a dozen of search results from not only the current directory but also subdirectories at any level, all mixed together in a flat list.
Unfortunately, at the time of writing this there is no setting for changing this behaviour and the only way to fix it is to patch GTK3 and recompile. The patch is available in a custom ArchLinux package. I also built some custom GTK 3.20.6 packages for Fedora (see below).
File Chooser Single Click Selection
In previous GTK versions, you used to have to double click on a file or directory in order to choose it. By "choose" I mean pick that file for open/save and close the file chooser. This is not to be confused with "select", which means just moving the focus on that file in the list.
In newer GTK3 versions this is no longer the case. The new behaviour is to use single click, but even that is not consistent: * If the file/directory not selected already, then a single click will choose it as expected (or recurse into it, if it's a directory). If you double click on it (because you're used to the old behaviour), it will not be handled as a double click event. It will be handled as two single click events. The first one will choose the file/directory. And, mostly annoying, if the first click recursed into a directory, the second click will choose whatever is there (at that mouse pointer position) in the previously chosen directory. * If the file/directory is not selected already the first click will not choose it, it will just select it. The second click will choose it. Again, if you double click, it will handle two single clicks (not a double click), but the behaviour will be similar to the old double click.
Unfortunately, at the time of writing this there is no setting for changing this behaviour and the only way to fix it is to patch GTK3 and recompile. The change was introduced by a single commit, which can be reverted. The reverse commit does not no longer apply cleanly on GTK 3.20.6, but can be easily applied manually. I also built some custom GTK 3.20.6 packages for Fedora (see below) and you can take the patch from there.
Custom Fedora Packages
Custom Fedora GTK3 packages that contain both the typeahead and the single click fix are available in my copr repository.
OK, so I recently upgraded to Fedora 24. Not so many surprises, but one of the was that suddenly the scrollbars in all Qt applications used a different theme. Most probably not only the scrollbars, but those were strikingly different.
As a background, I'm using MATE Desktop on Fedora, with the TraditionalOk theme and Mist icon set. So normally my desktop looks pretty much like the default Gnome 2 desktop before Fedora 15 (when they decided to drop Gnome 2, because it had been discontinued upstream).
To begin with, Fedora 24 is at the transition point between Qt 4 and Qt 5. For this reason, older applications still use Qt 4, while newer have switched to Qt 5 already. And of course there are some legacy applications like Skype for Linux that are stuck on Qt 4. This is not a problem at all, but it may not be obvious to you (as it wasn't to me before I ran into this problem) that Qt 4 and Qt 5 have totally different configuration systems.
Fixing Qt 4 Appearance
- Install the
qt4-configpackage and then run
- In the default Appearance tab, select GTK+ for GUI Style.
- Click File - Save. That's it, you're done. Now Qt 4 applications are fixed.
Fixing Qt 5 Appearance
Quoting from the official release notes, Fedora 24 introduces QGnomePlatform, a Qt Platform Theme that aims to take as many of the GNOME settings as possible and apply them directly to Qt applications, thus enabling the Qt applications to fit more consistently into the GNOME Desktop.
So all you have to do is install the
qgnomeplatform package and then suddenly all Qt 5 applications will start to look like your GTK theme. They will even use the GTK file dialogs. This is awesome.
This is not a tutorial about how to use the TUN/TAP driver and related tools. A very good tutorial with many useful comments is available here.
This article focuses on a very specific use case of the TUN/TAP driver: to create a tunnel with both ends on the same host and to be able to route traffic through that tunnel. The main applications of this configuration are protocol (stack) prototyping, analysis and/or testing.
Typical Use Case
The following diagram shows the typical use case of the TUN/TAP tunnels. The client and server applications (in the top) can be any typical Linux applications, for instance a web browser and a web server or an ftp client and an ftp server. The prototyping application (in the bottom) is the application that receives and processes all the traffic that passes through the TUN/TAP interfaces.
The client and server applications send and receive traffic using the traditional unix socket interface. Traffic is routed through the TUN/TAP interfaces, which appear as regular network interfaces to the Linux networking stack. However, the TUN/TAP interfaces are backed by file descriptors. These file descriptors are the interface that the prototyping application is using to receive and send the traffic from/to the TUN/TAP interfaces. This application acts as the MAC+PHY layers for the TUN/TAP interfaces.
Depending on the application, either TUN or TAP interfaces can be used:
- TUN interfaces appear as IP-only interfaces: point-to-point interfaces that have no MAC layer. In this case, no ARP is necessary because no Ethernet header is generated and raw IP packets are sent directly to the interface. The prototyping application receives/sends raw IP packets.
- TAP interfaces appear as normal Ethernet interfaces with a MAC layer. In this case, ARP is necessary because an Ethernet header needs to be generated with the appropriate destination MAC address. The prototyping application receives raw Ethernet frames.
TAP interfaces are useful for applications where Layer 2 visibility between hosts is required. But for the typical use case described above, TUN interfaces are better suited because they eliminate the complexity of the MAC layer. Therefore, the rest of the article focuses on TUN interfaces.
Let's say that tun0 is configured with IP address 192.168.13.1 and tun1 is configured with IP address 192.168.13.2. Because they are point-to-point interfaces, we'll configure them by also specifying the IP address of the peer interface. This will automatically add a route to the peer IP address through the local interface.
ifconfig tun0 192.168.13.1 pointopoint 192.168.13.2 ifconfig tun1 192.168.13.2 pointopoint 192.168.13.1
We want to run the server application on 192.168.13.2 and connect to it with the client application, using an unbound socket. By default, the source IP address for unbound client sockets is the IP address of the outgoing network interface (in case it has multiple addresses, routing determines which one is used).
The problem is that normally all traffic that originates from the local host and is addressed to a local IP address is routed through the loopback interface (lo), regardless of what interface the destination IP address belongs to. That means the traffic will not flow (by default) through the TUN/TAP as we expect.
This can be tested using a sample application. It follows the typical use case described above and, for each packet that traverses the application, it prints the packet length in bytes and the incoming file descriptor. If we
ping 192.168.13.2, we'll notice that we receive replies but the test application doesn't print anything. This means that the packets don't go through the TUN interfaces. By using
tcpdump -nn -i lo we can easily confirm that they are going through the loopback interface instead.
Advanced Routing Configuration
In order to overcome the problems described above, some advanced Linux routing configuration is required. This section gives a brief description of the necessary routing concepts and the required configuration to make routing work as needed.
Multiple Routing Tables
Most common routing configuration tasks on Linux deal with a single routing table (like most routers do), but in fact Linux has multiple routing tables. When a route lookup is made by the Linux kernel, the route lookup does not begin in the routing table, but in the rule table. These rules are similar to some extent with iptables (because they match the packet by some configurable criteria) but decide which routing table to look up for a matching route. Like iptables, these rules are ordered and matched sequentially. The first rule that matches determines the routing table to use. If no matching route is found in the corresponding routing table, route lookup continues with the next rule.
To manipulate these rules (and also to configure advanced parameters for routes), we'll use the iproute2 package, which provides the "Swiss Army Knife" tool called
ip. The legacy
route Linux command provides no support for rule management and only limited support for route management.
# ip rule ls 0: from all lookup local 32766: from all lookup main 32767: from all lookup default
Each rule has a corresponding number and rules are matched in increasing order of their number.
By default, Linux has 3 routing tables. Each table is identified by a unique number, but also a name can be assigned by configuring it in
/etc/iproute2/rt_tables. The 3 default routing tables are:
- local - contains local and broadcast routes, i.e. routes to the IP addresses assigned to interfaces and to the broadcast IP addresses;
- main - these are "regular" routes and correspond to the legacy routing table in Linux;
- default - this table is empty.
We have already seen that all locally originated traffic to the IP address of tun1 (or tun0, for that matter) goes through the
lo interface. However, this is neither magic, nor some hard-coded decision in the Linux kernel. It happens because when an IP address is configured on an interface, by default a corresponding route is added to the
local routing table. If we examine it with
ip route ls table local, we can observe the routes for tun0 and tun1:
local 192.168.13.1 dev tun0 proto kernel scope host src 192.168.13.1 local 192.168.13.2 dev tun1 proto kernel scope host src 192.168.13.2
These routes can be easily removed like this:
ip route del 192.168.13.1 table local ip route del 192.168.13.2 table local
Now half of the problem is solved. The next routes that are matched are the implicit routes created by the
pointopoint attribute that we used when we configured the IP addresses. This attribute creates an implicit route to the point-to-point address (the IP address of the "peer" interface) through the local interface. These routes live in the
main table, which is the default for the
ip route command and also the table used by the legacy
route command. We can view these routes by using the
ip route ls command:
192.168.13.1 dev tun1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.13.2 192.168.13.2 dev tun0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.13.1
At this point we can try to ping the IP address of tun1, e.g. by using
ping -c 1 -W 1 192.168.13.2. We'll notice three things:
- The prototyping application receives the packet going through tun0 and delivers it to tun1. Note: the packet will appear as outgoing (egress) for tun0 and incoming (ingress) for tun1. The debug message coming from the prototyping application is this:
read 84 from fd 3.
- If we use tcpdump on tun1 (e.g.
tcpdump -nn -i tun1), we can see the packet as being received by tun1:
IP 192.168.13.1 > 192.168.13.2: ICMP echo request, id 18793, seq 1, length 64.
- However, the ping doesn't receive any reply and fails:
1 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 0ms.
Ingress Packet Processing
So what's wrong with our current configuration? The problem is that our packets pop out of tun1 (on tun1 ingress), but the kernel does not recognize them as being addressed to the local host. If we examine the Netfilter packet flow diagram, we'll notice there is a "routing decision" on the input path. This routing decision tells the kernel what to do with the packet that just arrived.
In order to determine if a packet is addressed to the local host, the kernel does not look at the IP addresses that are configured on the interfaces, as most people would expect. What it does instead is use the "routing decision" on the input path. This is a very clever (but not so obvious) optimization. A routing decision on the input path is needed anyway: for a Linux box that acts (mainly) as a router, the routing decision is needed to determine where (to what interface) the packet needs to go. This is standard routing theory. Now the clever part is that the same routing decision is used in order to determine if the packet is addressed to the local host: the condition is to match a local type route, where both the interface and the IP address match.
Wait a minute! The routes that we need in order to accept the packets and process them as addressed to the local host are the routes that we previously deleted. It turns out that these local type routes actually serve two purposes:
- On the output path, they make the packets go through the
- On the input path, they make the packets be treated as addressed to the local host and processed as such.
Splitting Input and Output Routing
Luckily, the output and input routing decisions are different. Of course they are. What I mean is that they are triggered from different parts of the network stack code, with different "parameters". This is also suggested by the Netfilter packet flow diagram, where the two routing decisions are illustrated by distinct blocks (one on the input path and one on the output path).
The solution to our problem is to take advantage of the distinct routing decisions and configure routing in such a way that the local type routes are only "seen" by the input routing decision. The key here is to use a rule that matches the input interface: the
iif parameter to the
ip rule command. The rule will match only during the input routing decision, where the "input interface" attribute of the packet is set to the interface that received it (tun1 in our example). During the output routing decision, the "input interface" attribute of the packet is not set and will not match the rule (actually, in the kernel code, interface "indexes" are used for this attribute and, during the output routing decision, the attribute is set to 0 - which doesn't correspond to any interface, since valid interface indexes start at 1).
The commands for accepting incoming traffic on tun0 are:
ip route add local 192.168.13.1 dev tun0 table 13 ip rule add iif tun0 lookup 13
The commands for accepting incoming traffic on tun1 are:
ip route add local 192.168.13.2 dev tun1 table 13 ip rule add iif tun1 lookup 13
Note that for accepting incoming packets on tun1, only the 2nd set of commands is necessary. However, this is still not enough for the ping to work, because this only solves the problem of the ICMP echo request (going from 192.168.13.1 to 192.168.13.2). This packet will be accepted and the IP layer will generate a corresponding ICMP echo reply, from 192.168.13.2 to 192.168.13.1. The reply packet will have the same problem when it's received by tun0.
This can be tested by adding first (only) the route and rule for tun1. Then the following behaviour will be observed.
tcpdump shows both packets (request and reply):
IP 192.168.13.1 > 192.168.13.2: ICMP echo request, id 19377, seq 1, length 64 IP 192.168.13.2 > 192.168.13.1: ICMP echo reply, id 19377, seq 1, length 64
The prototyping application transports both packets:
read 84 from fd 3 read 84 from fd 4
But the ping still doesn't work until the route and rule for tun0 are added.
Of course, ping is just a simple test. But in the configuration described above, all kinds of traffic works. The configuration has been successfully tested with http and ftp.
udisks2 is the package that (among many other things) is responsible for automatically mounting removable media under
/media. Well, not directly under
/media - it creates on-the-fly a new subdirectory with the volume label (or uuid, or serial number, depending on the mounted filesystem type) and then mounts the removable media in that subdirectory.
Starting with Fedora 17, udisks2-1.94, the mount path has changed from
/var/run/media/<username>, where username represents the currently logged in user. If you use the command line a lot (like I do), it's not very convenient to type all these path components (even with autocompletion). Perhaps the reason behind this change was to avoid mount point conflicts (and permission problems for filesystems that don't support UNIX permissions) between multiple logged in users. But I doubt that two (or more) different users can mount the same volume in two different places at the same time.
I created a small patch against udisks-1.94 that reverts the mount location to
/media. The patch is trivial, it just disables the code block that calculates the path in
/var/run. Fallback to the old
/media location was already implemented.
Disclaimer: I am not responsible for anything the material or the included code/patches may cause, including loss of data, physical damage, service disruption, or damage of any kind. Use at your own risk!
Booting in RAID-only environments
The main problem with grub (and booting in general) is that it needs a plain ext2 partition to read the kernel image from. The device that holds the partition needs to be readable by using BIOS calls (we cannot use drivers at boot time, can we?).
RAID devices are internally managed by the kernel, so you tipically need a non-RAID device to boot from. However, software RAID 1 with linux is special, because the data is not interleaved. This means that if you have an ext2 filesystem on a RAID 1 array, you'll have the same data blocks in the same order on both members of the array, and thus a valid ext2 filesystem on both of them.
In this particular case it's possible to boot even if the /boot directory resides on the array. Because the information is duplicated, you only need one of the two array members, and you can use any of them to boot.
You should REMEMBER that this is just a trick. It only works with software RAID level 1, and in general you need a separate hard drive to hold the /boot directory and boot from it.
Tricking grub to setup and boot correctly
We'll assume that you have two disks (hda and hdc) with two partitions each. hda1 and hdc1 are equally sized, and members of the md0 RAID 1 array. Similarly, hda2 and hdc2 are equally sized, and members of the md1 array. The md0 device is smaller and holds the /boot filesystem, and md1 is larger and holds the / filesystem.
If you use anaconda at install time to configure the arrays, it will also setup grub at the end of the install process, and by some magic it will work. However, if, at some point in the future, the primary hard drive (hda) fails and you replace it, you'll have no boot sector to boot from. Eventually, you'll have to reinstall grub and, surprisingly, although anaconda managed to install grub correctly, you won't manage to do it with the configuration files created by anaconda. If you try to
grub-install /dev/hda, it will claim that "md0 does not have a corresponding BIOS drive" and abort the installation.
The problem is that at boot time grub needs to read the stage1 and stage2 files, which are located in /boot/grub. But at boot time no kernel is running, so grub will have to use BIOS calls to read directly from the disk. However, it needs to know exactly what disk (and partition) to read from. This piece of information is determined at install time, and then hard-coded into the boot sector.
At install time the kernel is running, and some device is mounted under /boot. But grub needs to find what physical device that is, so it can properly read from it later at boot time. To do this, it first determines the device that is mounted on /boot, then it tries to figure out how it can be accessed through BIOS calls. Fortunately, it looks for the mounted device in /etc/mtab rather than /proc/mounts.
The /dev/md0 device (which is mounted on /boot) will never have a corresponding BIOS drive, because it's not a real (physical) device. It's a virtual device managed by the linux kernel. But the same information resides on both physical members of the array, so we need to trick grub into thinking that /boot is mounted from one of the two members (typically the one on the first disk - /dev/hda1 in our example). To do this, you need to edit /etc/mtab and manually change the entry for /boot with /dev/hda1 as the device.
At this point grub knows that /boot is on /dev/hda1, but it still needs a hint about accessing it using only BIOS calls. The hint comes from the /boot/grub/device.map, which maps a logical name such as /dev/hda to a physical device such as (hd0) which means (to grub) the first hard drive detected by the BIOS. So you need to make sure you have a correct mapping for the device you used.
Now you can safely do
grub-install /dev/hda and it should work.
Recovery when the secondary drive fails
This is the easiest case, because all the boot data resides on the healthy drive. The system will boot normally, but the arrays will start in degraded mode.
You can replace the damaged drive, and the system will still boot, again with the arrays in degraded mode. Now all you have to do is create the same partitions (or larger ones) on the new drive as you had on the old one. Then you can simply "hot" add the newly created partitions to the degraded arrays.
Suppose the same example as in the previos section. In this scenario /dev/hdc failed, and you replaced it with a new drive. On the new drive you created the hdc1 and hdc2 partitions, which you'll have to add to the md0 and md1 arrays respectively. This is very simple, and all you have to do is:
raidhotadd /dev/md0 /dev/hdc1 raidhotadd /dev/md1 /dev/hdc2
Now you can watch the arrays being reconstructed by looking at /proc/mdstat. If you're anxious about the progress of the job, you can even
watch "cat /proc/mdstat". Note that the two arrays won't be both rebuilt at the same time. That is because they both involve the same disks and rebuilding them at the same time would cause the disk heads to be moved very often from one partition to another. This would result in a severe performance loss and the md driver avoids it by rebuilding the second array only after the first completes.
Recovery when the primary drive fails
The first thing you should do is save a copy of your /etc/raidtab file. You'll need this later to get things to work. A floppy disk would do, but even better, make a hardcopy of the file. It's very small, but also very important.
The next thing you should do is replace the damaged disk. This is a bit tricky, because now you don't have anything left to boot from. Well, not really :) You can still boot from a rescue disk. So get Fedora disk 1 (or RedHat 9 disk 1 or... whatever) and boot in rescue mode (that's "linux rescue" at the boot prompt with RedHat & friends). Don't let the rescue disk mount anything from your hard disk. You'll mount them later.
Use fdisk to create partitions on the new disk. The new partitions must be the same size or larger than the old ones. Don't forget to change their type to 'fd' (Linux Raid Autodetect).
Now all you have to do is initialize the raid superblock on the new partitions and restore the arrays. But the only way I know to do this is start the arrays in degraded mode and then "hot" add the new partitions. The funny part is that anaconda won't start any array in degraded mode because "it's dangerous" (guys, why is it dangerous and how the heck are you supposed to restore the arrays first since they need to be running to add a new member?). Moreover, raidstart (and raidstop too) from the rescue image is some kind of anaconda "thingie" (actually a python program) that would never start the arrays. You need the original raidstart (the one from the raid tools package).
If your array is anything else but software RAID 1, you'll be on your own on this one. But if it is software RAID 1, you can do a nice trick. As I previously explained, the two members of the array are identical, and more, they are valid filesystems because the data is not interleaved. This means you can mount the corresponding "/" partition from the healthy drive as if the filesystem were created directly on the partition (and not on the RAID device). Use this very carefully and keep in mind that mounting the partition read-write is a very bad idea.
Mount the "/" partition from the healthy drive read-only and copy the raidtab file from it to /etc. Change the (newly created) /etc/raidtab file as if the arrays did not contain the partitions on the damaged drive. Remove the corresponding "device" and "raid-disk" entries, and adjust the remaining "nr-raid-disks" and "raid-disk" entries accordingly. Now you should be able to start the arrays (in degraded mode, of course) if you use the mounted partition's copy of raidstart. In our example, the modified raidtab file should look like this:
raiddev /dev/md1 raid-level 1 nr-raid-disks 1 persistent-superblock 1 nr-spare-disks 0 device /dev/hdc2 raid-disk 0 raiddev /dev/md0 raid-level 1 nr-raid-disks 1 persistent-superblock 1 nr-spare-disks 0 device /dev/hdc1 raid-disk 0
The original raidtab (in case you might need an example to write one from scratch) should look like this:
raiddev /dev/md1 raid-level 1 nr-raid-disks 2 persistent-superblock 1 nr-spare-disks 0 device /dev/hda2 raid-disk 0 device /dev/hdc2 raid-disk 1 raiddev /dev/md0 raid-level 1 nr-raid-disks 2 persistent-superblock 1 nr-spare-disks 0 device /dev/hda1 raid-disk 0 device /dev/hdc1 raid-disk 1
Now you can mount the RAID devices (this time it's safe to mount them r-w) and chroot into them. Use raidhotadd to add the partitions from the new hard disk to the arrays. Note that the RAID driver will synchronize only one array at a time, so start with the /boot array. You'll need it to be completely synchronized before you can boot.
Trick grub and re-install it, as previously described. Cleanly unmount the arrays, do a "sync" (just to be sure), and reboot. Your system should start cleanly.
Using a previously used disk as a replacement
This section should explain what you should take into account when using a previously used disk as a replacement, if it had RAID partitions on it (particularly this explains how to destroy the RAID superblock). To be written :)